CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus

CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus for the new academic session 2018-19 is available here. It contains all the important details of chapters with unitwise distibution of each chapter.

Here, also providing you the details of topics and subtopics covered in each unit. This can be important as it can help students understand how much time they must allocate for their studies for each unit.

Course Structure and Marking Scheme of Biology CBSE Board 2018-19

Here is a Summary Table, Providing You a Quick detail of The Entire Course Structure of Biology class 12th is divided in its Various Units with their Total Marks that they carry in board Exam.

      Unit No.           Title Total Marks
Unit VI Reproduction 14
Unit VII Genetics & Evolution 18
Unit VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14
Unit IX Biotechnology and its Applications 10
Unit X Ecology   and Environment 14
  Total 70

Class 12th Biology Syllabus

Unit VI: Reproduction

Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction –  asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction –  binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination-types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events-development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction

Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health

Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and Variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds, honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; mendelian disorder in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice ganeome project; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive Radiation; human evolution.

Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare

In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit IX: Biotechnology and Its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). 

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.

Unit X: Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations

Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-14: Ecosystem

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book,  biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Chapter-16: Environmental Issues

Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).

Practical: Syllabus

Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms

Chapter-1: The Living World What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; the concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for the study of taxonomy museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-3: The Plant Kingdom Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category). (No live animals or specimen should be displayed.) Unit-II Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants 22 Periods

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants Morphology and modifications: Internal Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants Anatomy and functions of different tissues.

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only) Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function 35 Periods

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes- types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance Unit-IV Plant Physiology 40 Periods

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis.

Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role, deficiency symptoms, mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism. Unit-V Human Physiology 40 Periods

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.

Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease. Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.   


Here also providing you the detail of Evaluation Scheme and List of Experiments                               

Time allowed: 3 hours                                                                                        

Max. Marks: 30

Evaluation Scheme 
One Major experiment05
One Minor experiment04
Slide Preparation05
Spotting07
Practical Record + Viva Voice04
Project Record + Viva Voice05
Total30 Marks

A. List of Experiments

1. Study pollen germination on a slide.

2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.

3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.

4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.

5. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.

6. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.

7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.

8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.

9. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.

B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)

1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).

2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.

3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper mice).

4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.

5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).

6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.

7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.

8. Controlled pollination –  emasculation, tagging and bagging.

9. Common disease causing organisms Like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.

10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.

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