CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus for the new academic session 2018-19 is available here. It contains all the important details of chapters with unitwise distibution of each chapter.
Here, also providing you the details of topics and subtopics covered in each unit. This can be important as it can help students understand how much time they must allocate for their studies for each unit.
Course Structure and Marking Scheme of Biology CBSE Board 2018-19
Here is a Summary Table, Providing You a Quick detail of The Entire Course Structure of Biology class 12th is divided in its Various Units with their Total Marks that they carry in board Exam.
|Unit No.||Title||Total Marks|
|Unit VII||Genetics & Evolution||18|
|Unit VIII||Biology and Human Welfare||14|
|Unit IX||Biotechnology and its Applications||10|
|Unit X||Ecology and Environment||14|
Class 12th Biology Syllabus
Unit VI: Reproduction
Chapter-1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination-types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events-development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (Elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and Variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds, honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; mendelian disorder in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; genome and human and rice ganeome project; DNA fingerprinting.
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive Radiation; human evolution.
Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chickengunia, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit IX: Biotechnology and Its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic Animals; biosafety issues, bio piracy and patents.
Unit X: Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy; nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous); ecological succession; ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, national parks, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Chapter-16: Environmental Issues
Air pollution and its control; water pollution and its control; agrochemicals and their effects; solid waste management; radioactive waste management; greenhouse effect and climate change; ozone layer depletion; deforestation; any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s).
Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms
Chapter-1: The Living World What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; the concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for the study of taxonomy museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
Chapter-2: Biological Classification Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista
Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category). (No live animals or specimen should be displayed.) Unit-II Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants 22 Periods
Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants Morphology and modifications: Internal Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).
Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants Anatomy and functions of different tissues.
Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy
Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum,
Chapter-9: Biomolecules Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure
Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance Unit-IV Plant Physiology 40 Periods
Chapter-11: Transport in Plants Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport,
Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role, deficiency symptoms, mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants Photosynthesis as a means of A
Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations –
Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism. Unit-V Human Physiology 40 Periods
Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans;
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function –
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease. Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.
Here also providing you the detail of Evaluation Scheme and List of Experiments
Time allowed: 3 hours
Max. Marks: 30
|One Major experiment||05|
|One Minor experiment||04|
|Practical Record + Viva Voice||04|
|Project Record + Viva Voice||05|
A. List of Experiments
1. Study pollen germination on a slide.
2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture, moisture content, pH and water holding capacity. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH, clarity and presence of any living organism.
4. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at two widely different sites.
5. Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
6. Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
7. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
8. Study the effect of different temperatures and three different pH on the activity of salivary amylase on starch.
9. Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B. Study/observation of the following (Spotting)
1. Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
2. Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide.
3. Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper mice).
4. Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
5. T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
6. Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
7. Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.
8. Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging and bagging.
9. Common disease causing organisms Like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Roundworm through permanent slides or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
10. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in xeric conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.
11. Two plants and two animals (models/virtual images) found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their morphological adaptations.